Intravenous midazolam in convulsive status epilepticus in children with pharmacoresistant epilepsy

Abstract: Although the efficacy of midazolam in refractory status epilepticus and as a first-line agent in children with established status epilepticus has been reported, differences in starting doses, continuation method, timing of efficacy assessment, and discontinuation pose limitations in deriving a specific protocol for midazolam use. An audit of clinical experience with a protocol of midazolam as first-line agent for impending status epilepticus (defined as a continuous, generalized, convulsive seizure lasting >5 minutes) in 76 episodes of unprovoked convulsive status epilepticus in children 1–15 years old with treatment-refractory epilepsy demonstrated that: (1) repeated bolus midazolam 0.1 mg/kg (every 5 minutes, maximum 5) controlled 91% of events; (2) three bolus doses controlled 89% of the episodes, with minimal chance of response beyond that; (3) treating impending status resulted in lower doses (mean 0.17 mg/kg) than reported and infrequent utilization of additional anticonvulsants (9%); and (4) adverse events were infrequent (respiratory depression 13%, assisted ventilation 3%).

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